Overview & Goals
This lesson will focus on visiting with others around meals.
After this lesson, you should be able to sit and discuss multiple topics keeping a conversation going by asking questions, or by spurring dialogue through listening cues (aaha’, Å‚yaa lee, etc.) for the length of time it takes to drink one cup of tea.
A classifier is a word used to accompany nouns and can be considered to “classify” the noun in some way.
The general pattern for the Å‚ classifer can be seen in common verbs such as “aÅ‚tsii’ (“I am making‘), aÅ‚vir (“I am boiling‘), and aÅ‚ch’yaa (“I am cooking‘).
|to make (T)||-tsii|
|ahtsii yahtsii||heÅ‚she makes|
|ohtsii||you guys’ make|
|gahtsii giyahtsii||they make|
|to boil (T)||-vir|
|aÅ‚vir||I am boiling|
|Ä…hvir||you are boiling|
|ahvir yahvir||heÅ‚she is boiling|
|tr’ahvir||we are boiling|
|ohvir||you guys’ are boiling|
|gahvir giyahvir||they are boiling|
|to fryÅ‚to cook (T)||-ch’yaa|
|aÅ‚ch’yaa||I am cooking|
|Ä…hch’yaa||you are cooking|
|ahch’yaa yahch’yaa||heÅ‚she is cooking|
|tr’ahch’yaa||we are cooking|
|ohch’yaa||you guys’ are cooking|
|gahch’yaa giyahch’yaa||they are cooking|
The Å‚ classifier pattern:
|1st plural||tr’ah-; -rah-||—|
“Cheeshandak’ has been the only example of the d classifier so far, the classifier pattern between the prefix “chee-“ and the stem “—ndak’. A unique characteristic of the d classifier appears in 3rd person singular: if a prefix occurs before the classifier then the classifer marker is omitted. For instance, “cheendak’ (“he/she is tired‘) has no classifier marker. If there is no prefix before the d classifier marker in a verb, a “dÑ—-“ marks 3rd person singular. This can be seen in the verbs shi’Ä¯Ä¯’ (“I have ___‘) and shinÄ¯Ä¯ (“I am drinking ___’).
|to have (T)||Stem -‘Ä¯Ä¯|
|khwi’Ä¯Ä¯||you guys’ have|
|to drink* (T)||Stem -nÄ¯Ä¯|
|shinÄ¯Ä¯||I am drinking|
|ninÄ¯Ä¯||you are drinking|
|dinÄ¯Ä¯||he/she is drinking|
|tr’iinÄ¯Ä¯||we are drinking|
|khwinÄ¯Ä¯||you guys’ are drinking|
|giinÄ¯Ä¯||they are drinking|
|* Cannot be used with alcohol|
The d classifier pattern:
|3rd singular||Ã˜; dÑ—-||––|
|1st plural||tr’ii-; -rii-||—|
ch’eedzit shungaii- honey
k’ik – plate
laagahfii – coffee
Å‚uh gaÌ¨iÌ¨iÌ¨ faa – cookies
Å‚uh ch’yaa – bread
khwaii luh chyaa – frybread
_____ shin’ii. – I am drinking (water).
_____ nin’ii. – You are drinking (water).
_____ in’aa. – You are eating (fish).
_____ ih’aa. – I am eating (fish).
Å‚uk – salmon
Å‚uk choh – king salmon
ch’izhur, dinjik – moose
nilii tee chu’ – soup
vanh gwa shii – breakfast
drin tÅ‚’an gwa shii – lunch
khaÌ¨aÌ¨ gwashii – dinner
jyah – snacks
shih gwanlii – food
k’iktan- china, porcelain
_____yihthan – I want _____
_______yindhan? Do you want____?
____________Hininjyaa – Will you drink ________
___________ Hishinjyaa – I will drink __________
This week you will go to the website https://www.uaf.edu/anla/ and search for an Elder’s story which is either spoken or written in Gwich’in and has an English transcript.
Create a new post on this site and describe the story in English. Imagine what you would want to ask of the elder if you were having a conversation or what you would like to say. Type it out your questions to the elder in English and Gwichin in your post.
Songs and Music
When we think of gathering people together for eating, we also might think of listening to music and telling stories. View the resource page on Songs and Stories if you haven’t yet.